Bio A-B Practice Questions

The following questional may also be found by searching California Released Test Questions Biology and opening the cde website.

 

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

Introduction – Biology

The following released test questions are taken from the Biology Standards Test. This test is one of the California Standards Tests administered as part of the Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program under policies set by the State Board of Education.

All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content standards in Biology. In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, and language.

This document contains released test questions from the California Standards Test forms in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008. First on the pages that follow are lists of the standards assessed on the Biology Test. Next are released test questions. Following the questions is a table that gives the correct answer for each question, the content standard that each question is measuring, and the year each question last appeared on the test. It should be noted that asterisked (*) standards found in the Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade 12, are not assessed on the California Standards Tests in Science and, therefore, are not represented in these released test questions.

The following table lists each reporting cluster, the number of items that appear on the exam, and the number of released test questions that appear in this document. The released test questions for Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics are the same test questions found in different combinations on the Integrated Science 1, 2, 3, and 4 tests.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

REPORTING CLUSTER

Investigation and Experimentation (Standards: BIIE1. a-n)

Cell Biology (Standards: BI1. a-h)

Genetics (Standards: BI2. a-g, BI3. a-b, BI4. a-e, BI5. a-c)

Ecology and Evolution Ecology (Standards: BI6. a-f) Evolution (Standards: BI7. a-d, BI8. a-e)

Physiology (Standards: BI9. a-e, BI10. a-e)

TOTAL

NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ON EXAM

6

9 18

16

11 60

NUMBER OF RELEASED TEST QUESTIONS

9 13 27

25

16 90

In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of the academic content standards assessed on the Biology Test; (2) the questions demonstrate a range of difficulty; and (3) the questions present a variety of ways standards can be assessed. These released test questions do not reflect all of the ways the standards may be assessed. Released test questions will not appear on future tests.

For more information about the California Standards Tests, visit the California Department of Education’s Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/resources.asp.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

THE INVESTIGATION AND EXPERIMENTATION REPORTING CLUSTER

The following 14 California content standards are included in the Investigation and Experimentation reporting cluster and are represented in this booklet by nine test questions. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the California Biology Standards Test.

CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS IN THIS REPORTING CLUSTER

Investigation and Experimentation

BIIE1.

BIIE1. a.

BIIE1. b.

BIIE1. c.

BIIE1. d.

BIIE1. e.

BIIE1. f.

BIIE1. g.

BIIE1. h.

BIIE1. i.

BIIE1. j.

BIIE1. k.

BIIE1. l.

BIIE1. m.

BIIE1. n.

Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four reporting clusters, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.

Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error.

Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or uncontrolled conditions.

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

Solve scientific problems by using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

Distinguish between hypothesis and theory as scientific terms.

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps.

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

Recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests.

Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.

Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science.

Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings. Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California.

Know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e.g., the Piltdown Man fossil or unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes wrong (e.g., the Ptolemaic model of the movement of the Sun, Moon, and planets).

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

THE CELL BIOLOGY REPORTING CLUSTER

The following eight California content standards are included in the Cell Biology reporting cluster and are represented in this booklet by 13 test questions. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the California Biology Standards Test.

CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS IN THIS REPORTING CLUSTER

Cell Biology

BI1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI1. a.

BI1. b.

BI1. c.

BI1. d.

BI1. e.

BI1. f.

BI1. g.

BI1. h.

Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.

Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

Students know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins.

Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.

Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

THE GENETICS REPORTING CLUSTER

The following 17 California content standards are included in the Genetics reporting cluster and are represented in this booklet by 27 test questions. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the California Biology Standards Test.

CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS IN THIS REPORTING CLUSTER

Genetics

BI2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI2. a.

BI2. b.

BI2. c.

BI2. d.

BI2. e.

BI2. f.

BI2. g.

Students know meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type.

Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis.

Students know how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete.

Students know new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization).

Students know why approximately half of an individual’s DNA sequence comes from each parent.

Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual’s sex.

Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents.

BI3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI3. a.

BI3. b.

Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).

Students know the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.

BI4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI4. a.

BI4. b.

BI4. c.

Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.

Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.

Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

BI4. d.

BI4. e.

Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.

Students know proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids.

BI5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI5. a.

BI5. b.

BI5. c.

Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.

Students know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA.

Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

THE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION REPORTING CLUSTER

The following 15 California content standards are included in the Ecology and Evolution reporting cluster and are represented in this booklet by 25 test questions. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the California Biology Standards Test.

CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS IN THIS REPORTING CLUSTER

Ecology

BI6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI6. a.

BI6. b.

BI6. c.

BI6. d.

BI6. e.

BI6. f.

Evolution

Students know biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.

Students know how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size.

Students know how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death.

Students know how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.

Students know a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.

Students know at each link in a food web some energy is stored in newly made structures but much energy is dissipated into the environment as heat. This dissipation may be represented in an energy pyramid.

BI7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI7. a.

BI7. b.

BI7. c.

BI7. d.

Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.

Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.

Students know new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.

Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.

BI8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI8. a.

BI8. b.

BI8. c.

BI8. d.

BI8. e.

Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.

Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.

Students know the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population.

Students know reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation.

Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

THE PHYSIOLOGY REPORTING CLUSTER

The following 10 California content standards are included in the Physiology reporting cluster and are represented in this booklet by 16 test questions. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the California Biology Standards Test.

CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS IN THIS REPORTING CLUSTER

Physiology

BI9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BI9. a.

BI9. b.

BI9. c.

BI9. d.

BI9. e.

BI10.

BI10. a.

BI10. b.

BI10. c.

BI10. d.

BI10. e.

Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.

Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body’s interactions with the environment.

Students know how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body.

Students know the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in transmitting electrochemical impulses.

Students know the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation, thought, and response.

Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for understanding the human immune response:

Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection.

Students know the role of antibodies in the body’s response to infection.

Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.

Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.

Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually benign.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

1 Two students were testing the amount of fertilizer that would best promote the growth of strawberries in a garden. Which of the following could be an unavoidable source of experimental error?

A length of the study B variation in the strawberry plants C the cost of watering the plants D fertilization during the study

CSB00270

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

2 A student filled two Petri dishes with a clear cornstarch gel, then marked the letter “X” invisibly onto the gel in Petri dish 1 with a damp cotton swab. He then placed saliva from his mouth onto a second cotton swab and used that swab to mark the letter “X” invisibly onto the gel in Petri dish 2.

SALIVA EXPERIMENT

Petri Dish 1

Petri Dish 2

Fifteen minutes later, he rinsed both Petri dishes with a dilute solution of iodine to indicate the presence of starch. The surface of Petri dish 1 turned completely blue, indicating starch. Most of the surface of Petri dish 2 was blue, except the letter “X” was clear, as shown above.

The most probable explanation of the clear “X” is that

A the starch in the gel was absorbed by the damp cotton swab.

B the iodine reacted with a chemical in the saliva and broke down.

C a chemical in the saliva broke down the starch in the gel.

D the saliva prevented the iodine from contacting the starch in the gel.

CSB10285

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CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

 

3 In most stable freshwater environments, 5

Which of the following best describes the use of population models in biology?

A They are generally easy to construct.

B They can represent reality precisely.

C They are used when no observations have been made.

D They can help predict outcomes.

CSB10313

After a volcanic eruption has covered an area with lava, which of the following is the most likely order of succession in the repopulation

populations of Daphnia are almost entirely female and reproduce asexually. However, males are observed in low oxygen environments or when food is scarce. Based on these observations, a researcher suggests that male Daphnia develop in response to unfavorable environmental conditions. This is an

example of a

A result. B theory. C procedure. 6 D hypothesis.

CSB10041

4 A computer model of cellular mitosis can simulate the aspects of cellular division quite well. However, microscopic observation of actual cellular mitosis can improve understanding because actual observations

A may reveal greater unknown complexities. B are easier than a computer model to view. C are the same each time. D may provide division events in sequence.

CSB00035

of

A B C D

the area?

lichens → grasses → shrubs → trees mosses → grasses → lichens → trees grasses → trees → mosses → lichens shrubs → grasses → trees → lichens

CSB10049

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

7

STAGE W

STAGE X

STAGE Y

STAGE Z

When the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted, the blast covered much of the surrounding area with ash. Based on the diagram above, which list shows the sequence of secondary succession that followed that eruption?

8 The diagram below shows Rosalind Franklin’s x-ray diffraction image of DNA.

How did this evidence affect the work of Watson and Crick?

A It was used to determine the physical structure of DNA.

B It was used to identify the four bases that make up DNA.

C It was used to develop the theory of independent assortment.

D It was used to show that DNA was the molecule of inheritance.

CSB10032

9 Which information was most important to the development of genetic engineering techniques?

A the observation of nondominant alleles B the discovery of lethal genes C the formulation of Punnett squares D the structure of a DNA molecule

CSB00146

A B C D

X, Y, Z, W Z, X, Y, W W, Y, X, Z Z, Y, W, X

CSB10406 — 11 —

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

 

10 The cell membrane of the red blood cell 13

There are many different enzymes located in the cytoplasm of a single cell. How is a specific enzyme able to catalyze a specific reaction?

A Different enzymes are synthesized in specific areas of the cytoplasm.

B Most enzymes can catalyze many different reactions.

C An enzyme binds to a specific substrate (reactant) for the reaction catalyzed.

D Enzymes are transported to specific substrates (reactants) by ribosomes.

CSB10449

will allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and glucose to pass through. Because other substances are blocked from entering, this membrane is called

A perforated. B semi-permeable. C non-conductive. D permeable.

CSB00169

11 The plasma membrane of a cell consists of A protein molecules arranged in two layers

with polar areas forming the outside of the membrane.

B two layers of lipids organized with the nonpolar tails forming the interior of the membrane.

C lipid molecules positioned between two carbohydrate layers.

D protein molecules with polar and nonpolar tails.

CSB20259

12 What causes tomatoes to ripen much more slowly in a refrigerator than they do if left on a table at room temperature?

A Tomatoes need sunlight to ripen.

B Humidity accelerates the ripening process.

C Low temperatures reduce the action of ripening enzymes.

D Enzymes produced by bacteria inhibit ripening.

CSB10587

 

14 Some snake venoms are harmful because they

 

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molecules by the enzyme maltase. Which of the following would slow the reaction rate?

CSB00177

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

contain enzymes that destroy blood cells or tissues. The damage caused by such a snakebite could best be slowed by

A applying ice to the bite area. B drinking large amounts of water. C inducing vomiting. D increasing blood flow to the area.

CSB00026

15 Maltose can be broken down into glucose

A adding maltase B adding maltose C removing glucose D diluting with water

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

16 19 

Which molecule in plant cells first captures the radiant energy from sunlight?

??

a well- defined nuclear membrane

DNA

Is surrounded by

Has

A glucose B carbon dioxide C chlorophyll D adenosine triphosphate

20 The first stage of photosynthesis in a chloroplast is

a rigid coat of cellulose

mitochondria

Contains

chloroplasts

CSB00265

CSB10184

Which of these best completes this concept map?

A an animal cell B a prokaryotic cell

A light-dependent. B temperature-dependent. C glucose-driven. D ATP-driven.

C a virus D a plant cell

21 A cell from heart muscle would probably have an unusually high proportion of

CSB00164

A lysosomes. B mitochondria. C mRNA. D Golgi bodies.

17 Eukaryotic cells are differentiated from prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells

A are much smaller. B have permeable membranes. C have a higher rate of reproduction. D have nuclei.

CSB10170

18 Which cellular organelle is responsible for packaging the proteins that the cell secretes?

A cytoskeleton B cell membrane C lysosome D Golgi apparatus

CSB20518

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CSB00067

CSB10186

 

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22 In aerobic respiration, the Krebs cycle

(citric acid cycle) takes place in

A chloroplasts. B nuclei. C lysosomes. D mitochondria.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

 

23 The diagram below shows a cellular process 25

This process is known as

A meiosis. B mitosis. C endocytosis. D phagocytosis.

that occurs in organisms.

Which of the following best describes meiosis? A It is carried out in all tissues that require

cell replacement.

B It occurs only in cells in the reproductive structures of the organism.

C It happens in all tissues except the brain and spinal cord.

D It is the first stage of mitosis.

CSB10203

26 If a corn plant has a genotype of Ttyy, what are the possible genetic combinations that could be present in a single grain of pollen from this plant?

A Ty, ty B TY, ty C TY, Ty, ty D Ty, ty, tY, TY

CSB00263

CSB10031

24 Which of the following statements correctly describes meiosis?

A Cells divide only once during meiosis.

B Meiosis does not occur in reproductive cells.

C The cells produced at the end of meiosis are genetically identical to the parent cell.

D The cells produced at the end of meiosis contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

CSB10424

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

27 29 

a aa AA

bb BB

dDdD

The table below lists the typical diploid number of chromosomes of several different organisms.

Diploid Chromosome Number

Which of the following is the best explanation for why the chromosome number is an even number in each of these organisms?

A It is only a coincidence; many other organisms have an odd number of chromosomes.

B The diploid chromosome number is always even so that when mitosis occurs each new cell gets the same number of chromosomes.

C The diploid chromosome number represents pairs of chromosomes, one from each parent, so it is always an even number.

D Chromosomes double every time the cell divides, so after the first division, the number is always even.

a

aa AA

bbBB

d D d DC

b

Goldfish

94

Potato

48

Human

46

Pea

14

Fruit fly

8

The diagram above shows homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Which of the following correctly describes the process being illustrated?

A mutation in which the DNA content of the gene is altered

B segregation of sister chromatids C condensation and segregation of alleles D crossing-over in which alleles are exchanged

CSB10428

28 Which of the following sequences represents chromosome number during fertilization?

A n + n → 2n B 2n→n+n C n→n D 2n→2n

CSB20537

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CSB10425

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CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

 

30 Based only on the sex chromosomes in typical 33

Fur color in cats is controlled by an autosomal gene that can occur in the dominant form, (B), or the recessive form, (b). The length of the cat’s fur is controlled by another autosomal gene that occurs in the dominant form, (S),

or the recessive form, (s). The table below shows the traits for these allele codes.

The following genotypes were found in a male cat and a female cat.

BbSs (male) bbSS (female) Which one of the following choices is true of

the phenotype of offspring from these parents?

A All offspring will have black fur. B All offspring will have white fur. C All offspring will have long-haired fur. D All offspring will have short-haired fur.

CSB00193

If a human baby boy inherits a recessive allele from his mother, in which circumstance would he most likely show the trait coded for by the recessive allele?

A The baby inherits the dominant allele from his father.

B The allele is on an autosomal chromosome and the baby is a twin.

human egg and sperm cells at fertilization, the probability of producing a female is

A 25%. B 50%. C 75%. D 90%.

CSB10111

31 In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is dominant and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)?

A RR only B rr only C Rr and rr only D RR, Rr, and rr only

Gene Trait

B b S s

black fur white fur short-haired fur long-haired fur

CSB00047

32 In certain breeds of dogs, deafness is due to a recessive allele (d) of a particular gene, and normal hearing is due to its dominant allele (D). What percentage of the offspring of a normal heterozygous (Dd) dog and a deaf dog (dd) would be expected to have normal hearing?

A 0% B 25% C 50% D 100%

CSB00166

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

 

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34

C The allele is on the X chromosome. D The allele is on the Y chromosome.

CSB10118

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

35 Mendel hypothesized that reproductive 37 

5′ ATCAGCGCTGGC 3′

The above sequence of DNA is part of a gene. How many amino acids are coded for by this segment?

A4 B8 C 12 D 20

CSB10128

A scientist puts nucleotide chains of UUUUUU in a test tube under conditions allowing protein synthesis. Soon the test tube is full of polypeptide chains composed of only the amino acid phenylalanine. What does this experiment indicate?

A The amino acid phenylalanine is composed of uracil.

B UUU codes for the amino acid phenylalanine.

C Protein synthesis malfunctions in test tubes.

D Most proteins contain only one type of amino acid.

cells have only one factor for each inherited trait. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that

A B C D

haploid cells are produced by mitosis. diploid cells are produced by mitosis. haploid cells are produced by meiosis. diploid cells are produced by meiosis.

CSB10437

36 Codons Found in Messenger RNA

Second Base

A strand of mRNA containing the repeating sequence AAGAAGAAGAAG could code for which of the following amino acid sequences?

A lys–arg–glu–lys B ser–ser–glu–glu C lys–arg–lys–arg D lys–lys–lys–lys

 

39

38

U

C

A

G

U

Phe Phe Leu Leu

Ser Ser Ser Ser

Tyr

Tyr Stop Stop

Cys Cys Stop Trp

U C A G

C

Leu Leu Leu Leu

Pro Pro Pro Pro

His His Gln Gln

Arg Arg Arg Arg

U C A G

A

Ile Ile Ile Met

Thr Thr Thr Thr

Asn Asn Lys Lys

Ser Ser Arg Arg

U C A G

G

Val Val Val Val

Ala Ala Ala Ala

Asp Asp Glu Glu

Gly Gly Gly Gly

U C A G

CSB10132

B the insertion of a nucleotide into DNA C the movement of transfer RNA out of

the nucleus D the release of messenger RNA from DNA

CSB00174

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Which of these would most likely cause a mutation?

A the placement of ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum

CSB00097

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

First Base

Third Base

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

 

40 One human disease is caused by a change in one 42

Although there are a limited number of amino acids, many different types of proteins exist because the

A size of a given amino acid can vary. B chemical composition of a given amino acid

codon in a gene from GAA to GUA. This disease is the result of

41

A a mutation. B a meiosis error. C crossing-over. D polyploidy.

Epithelial cell from tadpole intestine.

Nucleus from tadpole cell is implanted in enucleated egg.

CSB00182

Egg from another frog. Nucleus has

been destroyed.

Egg develops into frog with the same characteristics of

original nucleus-donating tadpole.

can vary.

C sequence and number of amino acids is different.

D same amino acid can have many different properties.

CSB00157

A mutates the DNA. B turns the protein into carbohydrates. C stops protein formation. D changes the protein structure.

Which of these is best demonstrated by the experiment above?

A Differentiated cells contain a complete set of genes.

B All frogs are genetically identical. C Embryonic development is controlled by

the cytoplasm. D The nucleus of a tadpole cell is unspecialized.

CSB00077

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43

The clear protein of an egg white becomes opaque and firm when cooked because the heat

CSB00153

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

 

44 Which of the following base pair sequences 47

Semi-conservative replication of DNA refers to the idea that

A DNA molecules need to unwind before duplication begins.

B each new DNA molecule contains two new single RNA strands.

C the two strands of DNA molecules run in opposite directions.

D each half of the original DNA molecule is joined with a new complementary DNA strand.

CSB20229

could be produced in DNA replication?

A B C D

45 5′ 3′

5′ AGTCUT 3′ 3′ TCUGTA 5′

5′ AGTCAT 3′ 3′ TCAGTA 5′

5′ AGTCAT 3′ 3′ CTGACG 5′

5′ AGTCAT 3′ 3′ UCAGUA 5′

G T A _ _ _ A A 3′ C A T G C A T T 5′

CSB10141

48 The bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens

This segment of DNA has undergone a mutation in which three nucleotides have been deleted. A repair enzyme would replace them with

infects plants, and a portion of its DNA is inserted into the plant’s chromosomes. This causes the plant to produce gall cells, which manufacture amino acids that the bacterium uses as food. This process is a natural example of

A polyploidy. B genetic manipulation. C grafting. D hybridization.

CSB00187

 

A CGT. B GCA. C CTG. D GTA.

46 A base sequence is shown below. ACAGTGC

How would the base sequence be coded on mRNA?

A TGTCACG B GUGACAU C UGUCACG D CACUGUA

CSB00162

CSB10489

 

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49 Genetic engineering has produced goats

whose milk contains proteins that can be used as medicines. This effect was produced by

A mixing foreign genes into the milk.

B injecting foreign genes into the goats’ udders.

C inserting foreign genes into fertilized goat eggs.

D genetically modifying the nutritional needs of the goats’ offspring.

CSB10146

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Biology

Released Test Questions

 

50 Scientists found that, over a period of 52

A food chain is shown below.

For the food chain shown, which of the following changes would have the most severe consequences?

A a drastic decrease in rainfall, causing drought B the poaching of predatory hawks by game

hunters

C the introduction of a second predator that eats field mice

D a parasitic infestation that reduces the cricket population

CSB20074

Rabbits introduced into Australia over 100 years ago have become a serious pest to farmers. Rabbit populations increased so much that they displaced many native species of plant eaters. What is the most logical explanation for their increased numbers?

A Rabbits have a high death rate.

B There are few effective predators.

C Additional rabbit species have been introduced.

D There is an increase in rabbit competitors. CSB00300

200 years, a mountain pond was transformed into a meadow. During that time, several communities of organisms were replaced by different communities. Which of these best explains why new communities were able to replace older communities?

A The original species became extinct. B Species in the older community died from

old age.

C The abiotic characteristics of the habitat changed.

D Diseases that killed the older organisms disappeared.

CSB00008

51 In a pond, the primary producer is a green alga, Spirogyra; the primary consumer is the crustacean, Daphnia; the secondary consumer is a small fish, the bluegill; and the tertiary consumer is a larger fish, the smallmouth bass. What changes can be expected in the pond if the Daphnia are killed with pesticides?

A The Spirogyra population will probably die. B The bluegill population will probably

increase.

C The Daphnia population will eat something else.

D The smallmouth bass population will die. CSB10339

 

Grasses Crickets Field Mice Hawks

53

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2009 California Department of Education.

CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

Released Test Questions

Biology

Bees under stress1

Top of the food chain to you —class.

After all that’s what this is all about — keeping ourselves at the top of the food chain and not becoming extinct.

large segments f our food supply deoend on bees and bees are dying off due to pesticides.

Read this article and describe in your own words how ths crisis is occurring.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/pesticides-linked-to-bee-deaths-must-be-banned-scientists-say-1.2685492

http://libcloud.s3.amazonaws.com/93/3a/3/4738/GardenersBewareReport_2014.pdf