Category Archives: Chemistry Unit 9: Gas Laws

Physical Science Unit 8: Heat

Temperature Scales: Celcius, Fahrenhiet, Kelvin
Textbook 6.1-6.3

laws of Thermodynamics
Textbook 6.4-6.7

The 4 Laws of thermodynamics


There are 4 laws to thermodynamics, and they are some of the most important laws in all of physics. The laws are as follows

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics – If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.  {By the power vested in me by the State of California and the Transitive Property of Geometry and Algebra, I hereby declare you in thermal equilibrium}


  • First law of thermodynamics – Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. In any process, the total energy of the universe remains the same. For a thermodynamic cycle the net heat supplied to the system equals the net work done by the system. {You can’t win — you can only get out of a system as much work as has been put into it}


  • Second law of thermodynamics – The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. {You alsways lose  – at least a little — every time you try}


  • Third law of thermodynamics – As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum.  {You can’t get out of the game}







Boyles Law

Unit 7: Ideal Gas Law –

Chapter 13.1 covers 3 individual gas laws which were experimentally determined by 3 different people in the 1800’s. Charles, Boyle, and Guy-Lussac.

Chapter 13.2 covers combining these 3 laws into one more general law called The Ideal Gas Law.  Here we introduce the gas constant “R” and learn that if we hold one of the variables (such as Temperature) constant we can derive the other other gas laws.

Chapter 13.1


Chapter 13.2: The Ideal Gas Law

Avogadro’s Hypothesis