Unit 10 Quiz # 2

Chem Unit 10: Acids and Bases

This is a 10 question multiple choice quiz worth 50 points.
The quiz covers Unit 10 – Chapter 18.
Properties of Acids and Bases.

WebWork: Code Library

In this project you will begin developing a code library for future reference. Imagine your frustration 10 years from now when you are developing code for a website and can’t remember how to do something and then you suddenly remember wrote this code in High School. – Whew! What a relief!
Then all you need to do is jump to your cloud9 account or your archive disk and pull up the right page, copy and paste the code, test it, call your client to say you completed the task and ask them to send you a check!

Part 1: Build a mini-site:
Your code library mini site should have the following path:

Go to your c9.io panel and create a folder named ‘code’. note that folder names must be lowercase. While this is not required in any written documentation anywhere, I have had to solve hard to trace problems with capital letters not being recognized by the domain name server (remember what we said about DNS in the first week of this class?)

Create the 6 files you’ll need inside this code folder.
Your directory structure should look like this:

Next copy and paste code from your navbar project into the navbar.html page (only).
CAUTION: take only the essential code, drop any fancy backgrounds and images. When you look at this code later in life, you’ll need to quickly get to the code ‘snippets’ you need without having to sort through endless lines of coolstuffcode.

Copy the ‘ link rel=”stylesheet” etc ‘ statement into the head section of your new navbar.html page. Next copy the unordered list of page links into the body of this page.

Once that’s all working we’ll start working on the individual pages.

Physics Unit 5: Satellite Orbits

Study of satellite orbits

LEO and Sun Synchronous orbiting satellites – NASA


A train clouds ( map of A train satellites at 1:54)


Q: What is the orbital altitude or height of the A train.
Q: Based on this orbital height, calculate the orbital period of a satellite in the A train.
Challenge Q: compute the angular field of view needed to completely map the earth every 18 days.
OCO swath


Van Allen Belts

James Webb

The Doppler Effect – formulas

Lesson Objective: How to calculate the Doppler Effect  for moving sources and detectors. How to solve the Doppler equation for the speed of a galaxy based on its  Red or Blue shift.

Warm Up: {FM} Why is the Doppler Shift formula for light different than the Doppler Shift formula for sound?

What you need to know:

For Sound: fd = fs (v-vd) / (v-vs)
Derive expressions for fd where vd=0 and where vbs=0 (see pg 415).

New material:
For light: f observer = f (1 +/- v/c) for v<<c
And the “red shift” DL =Lobserved – L = +/-(v/c) L
Where D means delta and L means Lambda.

Do Practice Problems pg 456 # 16-19, you will be called on to present your work at the board.

Relativistic Doppler Effect: Now the problem is that the speed of light is a  constant and we are stuck never being able to exceed the speed of light.

Q: What is the speed of light in m/s? in miles/sec?

One of Einstein’s colleagues, Lorenz, came up with a transformation that allowed one to create  mapping between points in space-time. Using the Lorentz transformation, they derived the relativistic Doppler Effect:

nu’ = nu [  (1-v/c) / (1+v/c) ]^1/2

This is the Relativistic Doppler Effect which applies when v gets close to c.

This post from Wikipedia has the derivation of this equation – but it’s really complicated.  Diagrams 1 and 2 will give you the general idea.
The Relativistic Doppler Effect

Now calculate the non-relativistic and relativistic Doppler “Red Shifts” for a star moving away from you at;
Assume the star emits 500nm light.

Include your results in a table and in the third column, calculate the % difference between the non-relativistic and the relativistic Doppler red shifts.

Exit Assessment: What would 500nm light look like of you were traveling faster than the speed of light?

Chem Unit 10: MonoDi-TriPoly-Protic Acids

Say Whhhhhhhhatt?

The Latin prefix mono, di, tri, or poly is used to show how many ‘PROTONS’ or simply H+ ions an acid will give up when its dissolved in water.


A Monoprotic Acid can give up or donate 1 and only 1 H+ ion.

Here are some examples of monoprotic acids;

HCl – Hydrochloric acid
HNO3 – Nitric acid
CH3COOH – Acetic Acid, sometimes written HOAc

Let’s write an ionization equation for HCl in water

HCl(aq) +H2O   -> H3O+ + Cl- ( or moresimply written H+ + Cl-)

Q: Write the ionization equations for Nitric and Acetic Acids.

Here are some examples of diprotic acids;

H2SO4 – Sulphuric acid
H2SO3 – Sulfurous acid

H2CO3 – Carbonic acid ( in soft drinks due to CO2 being dissolved in water. Carbonic acid plays an important part in our body’s blood and respiration system as This is how carbon dioxide dissolves in the blood and is taken back to the lungs to be exhaled.

H2C2O4 – Oxalic acid (driveway, concrete cleaner, wood bleach)

H2S – Hydrogen Sulfide – highly poisonous – smells like rotten eggs ( oh yeah, break open a rotten egg some time and see how it smells)  Hold your nose closed AND RUN!!!!!!  Also an atmospheric  pollutant caused by Sulfur in gasoline from low quality high sulfur crude oil.


Let’s write the ionization equation for a diprotic acid. This time since there are 2 hydrogens released, we need to do this in 2 steps.

Step 1:   H2SO4(aq) +  H2O  –>  HSO4-  +  H3O+  ( or more simply HSO4- + H+)

Step 2:  HSO4(aq)- +  H2O  <–>  SO4–  +  H3O+  ( or more simply HSO4– + H+).

Note that step 2 is not as energetically favorable so the arrows point both ways.


Now you write the ionization equations for H2SO3,  H2CO3, H2CO4, and H2S.

Next we’ll list some triprotic acids.  As a challenge, you should try to write the 3 step ionization formulas.

H3PO4 – phosphoric acid

C6H8O7 – citric acid



Start at the 2:00 minute mark.

Chem Unit 10: Citric Acid

Citric Acid


Citric Acid - silly



Warm up: How many protons does Citric Acid produce when it is dissolved in water?
Citric Acid: H3C6H5O7Citric Acid ball and stick model


Structural Formula: Identify each of the carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen atoms.   Identify which Hydrogens are released when Citric Acid is dissolved in water.

in your notes, draw the neutral citrus acid molecule, the -1 ion, the -2 ion, and the -3 ion. Hint: you need to think about which Hydrogen atoms are release as H+ and why.

Citric Acid Structural Formula



Review Chapter 18 Assessment pg 53.


The speed of light

Learning Objective: Understanding the speed of light and how it has been measured.
Standard: PH5
Warm Up: {FM} Sketch the electromagnetic spectrum and label Gamma Rays, X rays, ultra-violet, the visible spectrum, infrared, microwaves and radio waves.

Quick Quiz 25 pts
Measuring the speed of light:read Roemer’s experiment pgs 445-446. Pair share and discuss if his approach was valid. Class discussion.

Read Michelson’s experiments pg 446.

Is the speed of light constant? Does its speed depend on a luminiferous Aether?

Now that we know the speed is constant in free space, and there is no Luminiferous Aether, how can the laws of physics be the same as seen in all possible inertial reference frames?

The relativistic Doppler effect: read pg 453-454.

Exit Assessment: How can you use the relativistic Doppler effect to determine if a distant star or galaxy is moving towards or away from you?

Quick Quiz: Light

EM Spectrum

5 question quick quiz on light and the EM spectrum

Sample Quiz 1

Sample Quiz 1

Sample Quiz Template

WebWork Unit 4: NavBars – Lesson 3 – CSS Selectors

You can select common objects in your html code and style them all at once using CSS Selectors.

There are three CSS Selectors you will need to know. These are, in order of cascading priority (remember cascading styles?????);

element – the element selector selects all html elements of a certain type and applies the style to all of them in the page.  So yo can select <p> to apply this style to all paragraphs or <h3> to apply a style to all h3 headings. Example:

p {
text-align: center;
color: red;

id – the id selector uses the html tag’s attribute to select one or more html elements in a page: The id starts with a # followed by the id name  ex. #name.  The html element needs to contain the attribute id=”name”, do not use the # in the html element.

<!DOCTYPE html>
#para1 {
text-align: center;
color: red;

<p id=”para1″>Hello World!</p>
<p>This paragraph is not affected by the style.</p>


class – the class selector lets you apply a style to  a specific type of element.  You can specify different styling to various type elements using the class statement preceded by the element type and a period or not, simply by not including the element type and period.

Example – without element type

<!DOCTYPE html>
.center {
text-align: center;
color: red;

<h1 class=”center”>Red and center-aligned heading</h1>
<p class=”center”>Red and center-aligned paragraph.</p>


Or you can specify the style only applies to a specific element type.

<!DOCTYPE html>
p.center {
text-align: center;
color: red;

<h1 class=”center”>This heading will not be affected</h1>
<p class=”center”>This paragraph will be red and center-aligned.</p>



Here’s the w3schools CSS Selector lesson.

WebWork Unit 4: NavBars – Lesson 4 – 2 level navbar

Learning Objective: In this lesson you’ll learn how to build a multi-level navbar also known as a dropdown menu. An example of a dropdown menu in a vertical navbar is used in the left hand column of math-sceinces…

Here’s a full treatment of 2 level nav bars from Tom at jsfiddle;

2 level navbar demo

You can read the original post at Stack Overflow http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9100344/pure-css-multi-level-drop-down-menu but it is a bit complicated.

the basic idea is that the navbar consists of a ul with links but navbar elements with a dropdown contain another ul nested within that element. Ie a ul within a ul.

WebWork Unit 4: NavBars – Lesson 2

Lesson Objective: create a code library for future reference.

Dear Class,

I was amazed when I reviewed your navbar.html pages! Some of these sites had beautiful imagery, animated images and some integrated the navbar beautifully in the body of page content.

All that is good but now we need to create a code library for you to use later as a reference when you are doing webwork for a client.

Step 1: Log on to cloud9, create a new folder named ‘code’ (without the quote marks of course).

Step 2: create a new set of files; navbar, about, etc as you did in your last project. Change the ‘interests’ page name to ‘2-level-navbar.html‘.  Change your ul to include this new page. You can access these pages online using name.avance-student.com/code/filename.

Step 3: Build these pages with the css and navbar code from the last project. DO NOT INCLUDE ANY IMAGES, PAGE BACKGROUNDS OR ANY FANCY FEATURES! You should include 1 sentence of regular text which describes the page. Example: This is a NAVBAR.  Remember – this is a code reference for later use and years down the road you will need to find and grab snippets of code quickly. Keep it simple! This assignment will be graded and I will take off points for anything extra I find on the page.

Next lesson: Floating the navbar to full page width ie Full width float.

NavBar Project

The task is to develop a skeleton multi-page website with internal navigation.

Part 1:

To start you need to create basic pages

You need to start with a landing page, usually this is the index page but for this project make the landing page navbar.html

about.html (add text later about who you are, your dreams and aspirations)

interests.html ( this can be any page of your interest such as ‘soccer’, ‘animals’, ‘cars’, ‘clothes’  etc. For example, you could name the page animals.html.)

gallery.html (a photo gallery we’ll create later)

friends.html (we’ll use this later and add some slick code)

contact.html (later we’ll add email ‘mailto’ links, and links to your social media)

Do not worry too much at this point about adding content to the pages. There will be plenty of time for that later.

Part 2:

Now create a horizontal NavBar

Use CSS in the head to style the links and blocks for ‘unvisited’ or ‘link’, ‘active’, ‘hover’,  and ‘visited’ states.

WebWork Unit 4: NavBars

Learning Objective:

Learn to develop a site Navigation Bar as seen in commercially produced websites.

Essential technologies

links (anchors)
unordered lists
link and block styling

Anchor Formats

There are 3 basic link formats
1] external link – you can never go wrong with this one; <a href=”URL”>Anchor Text</a>

2] internal links: use this format to link to other pages in the same domain  <a href=”/folder/filename.html>Anchor Text</a> or <a href=”filename.html>Anchor Text</a>

3] text anchors or placeholders – these are normally used to link to a section or div in the current page. Do not use this format for the navbar.<a href=”#anchorname”>Anchor Text</a>

A word about SEO:

How nasty is Google – this week’s fiasco!
WebPro News

Physics Unit 13: the nature of Light

Learning Objective:

Understanding the basic nature of light


PH 5

Warm up:

{Predictive, Diagnostic} What is Light? Is light a wave or a particle? If light is a wave, what do you think is oscillating?

Introduction to light

This video is simple overview – you should watch this on your own after class….

Historical backgrounds – myths and measurements.

What is an electromagnetic wave?

Q: if the electric and magnetic fields are in the y and z direction, what is the axis of propagation of the wave?

The Electromagnetic Spectrum:
Key length scales: meters, nanometers, Angstroms
1 nm = 10^-9m, 1 A = 10^-10m

Visible orange light is 6,000A wavelength. What is this wavelength in nanometers? in meters? (use scientific notation).

The Electromagnetic Spectrum – courtesy of Monkey See

The speed of light is known to be 3×10^8 m/s in free space.
Q; Calculate the frequency of visible orange light.

Challenge problem:

Alpha Century is actually a binary star with Alpha Century A and B orbiting each other at a distance of 200 AU.  Alpha century a is similar to our sun but slightly larger.  Assume Alpha century A has the same luminous flux as our sun, calculate its apparent brightness as seen from Earth.

A light year is the distance light travels in one year – it is equal to 9.46 x 1012 km. Alpha Centauri A & B are roughly 4.35 light years away from us. Our sun has a luminous flux of 3.846×10^26 J/s and is 149,600,000 km away. source: Cosmic Distance Scales

Assume Alpha century A has the same luminous flux as our sun, calculate the apparent brightness of as seen from Earth.

Exit Assessment:

How would you use the apparent brightness of a star to measure its distance from Earth?

This is a great video, includes light, astronomy, Mars, remote sensing. Watch it now, I’ll be posting questions later…..


Calculations: Formulas you need to know;

Luminous Flux P {lumens}, Illuminance E {lux} read pg 440-441

Luminous Intensity {candela}

Point Source Illuminance pg 443

GP: Example Problem 1 pg 444

IP: Practice Problems 1,3,4 pg 444